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Cellular immunity is also known as cell-mediated immunity. The narrow sense of cellular immunity only refers to T cell mediated immune response, that is, T cells differentiate, proliferate and transform into sensitized T cells after being stimulated by antigens. When the same antigen enters the body again, the sensitized T cells kill the antigen directly and the cytokines released by the sensitized T cells synergistically. T cell mediated immune response is characterized by inflammation and/or specific cytotoxicity characterized by monocyte infiltration. Cellular immunity in general should also include primitive phagocytosis and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cellular immunity is the most effective defense response to eliminate intracellular parasitic microorganisms and is also an effective means to reject allografts or tumor antigens. Ji'nan Bioengineering Living cells
Organ transplantation is more successful between identical twins because the genomes of the two are the same, the MHC molecules on the cell surface are the same, and neither individual rejects the other's organs.
Hormones, radiation and drugs (6-mercaptopurine) can inhibit the immune function of recipients and increase the success rate of transplantation. But it also increases the risk of infection. Although cyclosporin selectively inhibits the function of T cells, it also affects other functions of the immune system.
Clinical organ transplantation also has the problem of rejecting recipients from foreign organs: for example, in bone marrow transplantation, when the donor bone marrow is implanted in the recipient, the lymphocytes from the foreign bone marrow attack the recipient's tissues (antigens), and the consequences can lead to death of the recipient.
T cells stimulated by antigens differentiate, proliferate and transform into sensitized T cells. When the same antigen enters the body again, the sensitized T cells kill the antigen directly and the synergistic killing effect of lymphokines released by the sensitized T cells is collectively called cellular immunity. Like the same fluid immunization, the production of cellular immunity can be divided into three stages: induction, reaction and effect. Its mechanisms include two aspects: (1) sensitization of T cells to direct killing effect. When sensitized T cells contact with target cells with corresponding antigens again, they bind specifically and produce stimulation, which changes the permeability of target cell membrane, causes osmotic pressure changes in target cells, and the target cells swell and dissolve to death. Sensitized T cells are not injured in the process of killing target cells, and can re attack other target cells. The sensitized T cells involved in this action are called T cells. (2) cooperate with each other to kill target cells through lymphokine interaction. For example, skin reaction factors can increase vascular permeability and make phagocytes easy to flow out of the blood vessels; macrophage chemokines can attract the corresponding immune cells to focus on the antigen site, in order to facilitate the phagocytosis, killing and clearance of antigen. Because of the synergistic effect of various lymphokines, the immune effect is enlarged and the antigen foreign body is cleared.
In anti-infective immunity, cellular immunity mainly participates in the immune response to endoparasitic pathogenic microorganisms and tumor cells, delayed allergy and autoimmune disease formation, transplant rejection and humoral immunity regulation. It can also be said that in anti-infective immunity, cellular immunity is not only the main force of anti-infective immunity, participate in immune protection, but also an important factor leading to immunopathology.
T cells are the major cells of cellular immunity. Its immune source is generally: parasitic protozoa, fungi, exotic cell mass (eg: transplanted organs or virus-infected cells). Cellular immunity also has memory function.
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