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The immune system is an important part of our body, and its existence ensures our health to a great extent. Let's take a look at the information about immunity. Cell Engineering（Immune tumor microenvironment）
Immunity and diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is closely related to immune dysfunction. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. The immune system of diabetic patients attacks and kills insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion by the pancreas. TLR (Toll-like receptor) is the body's main receptor for recognizing exogenous or intrinsic pathogens. TLR4 is the first TLR found to recognize saturated fatty acids and link insulin resistance with innate immunity. Immunometabolism suggests that TLR2, TLR5 and TLR9 play an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes patients often have weak immunity and are prone to suffer from various diseases.
Diabetic patients with glucose metabolism disorders, hyperglycemia and increased intracellular sugar content, pyruvate accumulation, conducive to the growth and reproduction of pathogens;
Fat metabolism disorders and triglycerides increase, which provide rich nutrition for pathogens.
The formation of albumin decreases, the levels of antibody and complement in vivo decrease, and the immunity decreases. At the same time, the blood viscosity increases, microcirculation disturbance affects the oxygen exchange between blood and tissues, which further leads to the decrease of body resistance.
Diabetes mellitus patients with metabolic disorders lead to liver damage, reduced function of vitamin A conversion, resulting in impaired respiratory mucosal epithelial integrity, decreased defense function, susceptible to bacterial infection.
Diabetic patients or their relatives are often accompanied by other autoimmune diseases, such as diffuse goiter with hyperthyroidism, chronic lymphatic thyroiditis, myasthenia gravis, and pernicious anemia. In elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the incidence of malignant tumors is significantly higher, insulin resistance in patients with hyperinsulinemia, and insulin can promote the growth of malignant tumors.
Immunology and cardiovascular diseases
A large number of experimental studies and clinical observations have proved that the immune system can be activated and induce abnormal autoimmune response after the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, resulting in the production of autoantibodies, abnormal expression of inflammatory cytokines in the tissues and cells of cardiovascular lesions, mediating local inflammation through autocrine or paracrine pathways, and thus mediating local inflammation. The occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Further studies have shown that cardiovascular disease may be associated with the failure of immune cells to clear up aging cells. Based on this, cardiovascular immunology has become a hot topic in cardiovascular disease research.
Therefore, maintaining the homeostasis of the body's immune system is very important for the health of the body, for the middle-aged and elderly people timely reinfusion of immune cells can improve their own immunity, for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other treatment and prognosis will also play a certain role.
Immune cells and life span
Scientific research has found that with age, the total amount of hematopoietic tissue and the ability of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (the source of immune cells) to differentiate into immune cells are significantly reduced, and the ability of hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into immune cells is reduced, resulting in a variety of immune cell function decline, and even part of the number of immune cells will be reduced.
In 2008, a study of the elderly in Sweden found that different immune status was significantly associated with life expectancy. In 2013, the International Prestigious Journal reported that the total number of immune cells in the blood of both men and women decreased with age, but the rate of decrease in immune cells in men was significantly faster than in women, which may be longer in women than in men. One of the reasons for longevity.
The decline of immune function obviously affects the health, disease and death of the elderly.
Immune cells and aging
The theory of immune aging put forward by some scholars thinks that the decline of immune function is an important factor to cause the aging of the body. With the growth of age, the aging of immune organs, the decrease of immune cells and cytokines, the immune function of the body gradually weakened, the incidence of infectious diseases, tumor, mortality gradually increased.
A large number of follow-up clinical experiments have confirmed that immune function is closely related to life span. Further development of autoimmune theory suggests that autoimmunity related to autoantibodies plays a decisive role in the process of aging.
Aging is not a passive process of cell death and shedding, but the most active process of self-destruction, and there is growing evidence for this view.
The 3rd International Symposium on Basic Biology and Clinical Impacts of Immune Aging in 2002 proposed that accurate and sensitive immunological early warning indicators should be established to warn the occurrence of diseases and evaluate sub-health status as objective evaluation indicators of immune intervention.
Immune cells and tumor
In the past 30 years, the incidence of cancer in the world has increased at an average annual rate of 3-5%, which has become the first cause of death of mankind. The occurrence of cancer is multifactorial and multistep, including virus, chemistry, physics, hormone, heredity, chronic inflammation, gene mutation and so on.
The immune system recognizes and responds to tumors, recognizes and clears abnormal cancerous cells through cellular immune mechanisms. A healthy and balanced immune system can effectively control the occurrence and development of cancer, but bad habits and environmental factors may damage people's immune system, resulting in an increased incidence of cancer.
Immunity and virus
Viral infection is a pathological process in which viruses invade the body through mucosa or damaged skin, replicate and proliferate in local or systemic susceptible cells, resulting in varying degrees of damage to the body. The immune system response to viral infection includes two parts: non-specific immunity and specific immunity.
Nonspecific immunity is general control disease.
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