Living cells

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Ladd Porter is here to show you the diversity of cells.

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Ladd Porter is here to show you the diversity of cells.

Date of release:2018-06-21 Author: Click:

        Cell is the first part of biology. The diversity of cells determines the diversity of biology. Here Jinan Cell Engineering Cell introduces the diversity of cells. Let's take a look at it.

Living cells

        Eukaryotic cells refer to cells containing eukaryotic nuclei surrounded by nuclear membranes. Its chromosome number is more than one and can undergo mitosis. It can also carry out protoplasmic flow and deformation movement. Photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation were carried out by chloroplasts and mitochondria respectively. All animal and plant cells, except bacteria and cyanobacteria, belong to eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic organisms are called eukaryotes. In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA, histone and other proteins together constitute the chromosomal structure, nucleolus can be seen in the nucleus. The endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and lysosome are well developed in the endoplasmic membrane system, which perform specific functions respectively.Living cells

Eukaryotes include familiar plants and animals, as well as tiny protozoa, unicellular algae, fungi, mosses and so on. Eukaryotic cells have one or more bimembranous nuclei. Genetic material is contained in the nucleus and exists in the form of chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of a small amount of histone and some basic proteins rich in arginine and lysine. Eukaryotes are sexually propagated and undergo mitosis.

Prokaryotic cells do not have nuclear membranes, and genetic material is concentrated in a low electron density region without clear boundaries, known as nucleoid. DNA is a bare ring molecule, usually without binding proteins. The diameter of the ring is about 2.5 nm, and the circumference is about tens of nanometers. Most prokaryotes do not have a constant endometrial system. The ribosome is 70S. Prokaryotes are called prokaryotes, and they are single-celled organisms.
A cell that forms prokaryotes. The main characteristic of these cells is that there is no obvious nucleus, no nuclear membrane and nucleolus, only nucleoid, low evolutionary status.

Procaryotic / Prokaryotic cell is a cell without nuclear membrane and without mitosis, meiosis and amitosis. No protoplasmic flow was observed in this cell and no amoeba movement was observed. Flagellum has a single structure. Photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation take place on the cell membrane, without differentiation of organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, only ribosomes. The organisms that are composed of such cells are called prokaryotes, including all bacteria and cyanobacteria. That is, cells such as bacteria and cyanobacteria. It has no real nucleus, only a prokaryotic or mimic nucleus, containing a gene band (or chromosome), is a circular double stranded single-sequence deoxyribonucleic acid molecule (circular DNA), no histone to bind to it without nucleolus, lack of nuclear membrane. There are 70 S ribosomes and intermediates in outer protoplasts, lacking Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and centrosomes. Transcription and translation were carried out at the same time, and respiratory enzymes around the plasma membrane. Without mitosis and meiosis, the cells then split into two after DNA replication.

Archaocytes, also known as archaea, are a group of special bacteria that live in extreme ecological environments. Some features of prokaryotes, such as the absence of nuclear membranes and endometrial systems, are also characteristic of eukaryotes, such as the synthesis of methionine-based proteins, the insensitivity of ribosomes to chloramphenicol, the similarity between RNA polymerases and eukaryotic cells, the presence of intron-binding histones in DNA, and the presence of both different from and non-prokaryotic cells. Similar to the characteristics of eukaryotic cells, such as: lipids in cell membranes are not saponifiable; cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan, some protein-based, some heteropolysaccharides, some similar to peptidoglycan, but do not contain cytoplasmic acid, D-amino acid and diaminoheptanedioic acid.

Extremely thermophilic bacteria: a high temperature environment that can grow above 90 C. For example, the Archaea found by Stanford University scientists, the optimum growth temperature is 100 C, below 80, then inactivated, German Stett team found in the Italian seabed of a group of archaea, can live above 110, the optimum growth temperature is 98, to 84, then stopped growing; the United States J.A. Baross found one Some bacteria isolated from the crater can live in the environment of 250 degrees Celsius. Thermophilic bacteria have a wide range of nutrients, many of which are heterotrophic bacteria, many of which can oxidize sulfur to obtain energy.

Extreme halophilic bacteria: living in high salinity environment, salinity up to 25%, such as Dead Sea and Saline Lake. The cell wall of extreme halophilic bacteria consists of glycoproteins rich in acidic amino acids. The integrity of cell wall structure is maintained by ionic bonds. High Na+ concentration is necessary for the binding of protein subunits in cell wall to maintain the integrity of cell structure. When the cell wall proteins were transferred from high-salt environment to low-salt environment, on the one hand, the cell wall proteins were depolymerized into protein monomers, which made the cell wall lose its integrity; on the other hand, the balance of intracellular and extracellular ions was broken, the cell swelled and absorbed water, eventually leading to cell wall rupture and complete autolysis.

Extreme acidophilic bacteria: can live in the environment below pH 1, often thermophilic bacteria, living in volcanic acid hot water, sulfur oxide, sulfuric acid as a metabolite excreted from the body.

Extreme alkalophilic bacteria: most of them live in saline or alkaline lakes, alkaline pools, living environment pH value can reach 11.5 or more, the optimum pH value is 8-10.

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Living cells