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1. Water and inorganic salts
(1) water is the most basic substance of protoplasm.
Water is not only the most abundant in cells, but also plays a key role in the origin of life and the formation of ordered cell structures because of its unique physical and chemical properties. It can be said that without water, there would be no life. Water exists in cells in two forms: free water (about 95%) and bound water (about 4% - 5%) that binds to proteins through hydrogen or other bonds. With the growth and senescence of cells, the water content of cells gradually decreased, but the water content of living cells will not be less than 75%.（Living cells）
The main functions of water in cells are dissolving inorganic substances, regulating temperature, participating in enzymatic reactions, participating in substance metabolism and forming orderly cell structures. Ji'nan cell engineering
(two) inorganic salts
The content of inorganic salts in cells is very small, accounting for about 1% of the total cell weight. Salt dissociates into ions in cells. Ion concentrations play an important role in regulating osmotic pressure and maintaining acid-base balance.
The main anions are Cl-, PO4-, and HCO3-, of which phosphate ion is the most important in cell metabolism: 1) plays a key role in energy metabolism of various cells; 2) is the composition of nucleotides, phospholipids, phosphoproteins and phosphorylated sugars; 3) regulates the acid-base balance and buffer the pH of blood and tissue fluid.
The main cations are Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+ and Mo2+.
Two. Cellular organic molecules
There are thousands of kinds of organic substances in cells, accounting for more than 90% of the dry weight of cells. They are mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and other elements. Organic matter is mainly composed of four types of molecules, namely protein, nucleic acid, lipids and sugar, which account for more than 90% of the dry weight of cells.
Protein is a kind of very important macromolecule in life activities. Almost all kinds of life activities are related to the existence of protein. Protein is not only the main structural component of a cell, but also, more importantly, the enzyme, the biological catalyst, is a protein, so the metabolic activity of a cell can not be separated from protein. A cell contains about 104 proteins, with a total number of 1011 molecules.
(two) nucleic acid
Nucleic acid is a carrier of biological genetic information. All organisms contain nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are polymerized by nucleotides. Nucleic acids can be classified into two categories, DNA and RNA. When the temperature rises to a certain height, the double strands of DNA dissociate into a single strand, called denaturation or melting, which is called melting temperature (Tm). DNA with different base composition has different melting temperature. DNA with more G-C pairs (three hydrogen bonds) has higher Tm, while DNA with more A-T pairs (two hydrogen bonds) has lower Tm. When the temperature drops below a certain temperature, the complementary single strands of denatured DNA can restore the double helix structure of DNA by forming hydrogen bonds between the paired bases. This process is called renaturation or annealing.
Sugars in cells contain both monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides in cells exist as sources of energy and sugar related compounds. The most important monosaccharides are pentose and hexose, of which ribose is the main pentose and glucose is the most important hexose. Glucose is not only a key monosaccharide of energy metabolism, but also a major monomer of polysaccharides.
Polysaccharide plays a major role in cell structure. Polysaccharides in cells can be basically divided into two types: one is the nutritional reserve polysaccharides; the other is the structural polysaccharides. There are two main types of polysaccharides used as food reserves, starch in plant cells and glycogen in animal cells. In eukaryotic cells, structural polysaccharides are mainly cellulose (cellulose) and chitin (chitin).
Lipids include fatty acids, neutral fats, steroids, waxes, glycerin phosphate, sphingolipids, glycolipids, carotenoids, etc. Lipids are difficult to dissolve in water and easily soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.
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