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The activity of cells constitutes the activity of the whole organism, and the activity of the organism can not be separated from the activities of the cells. What are the following cellular engineering techniques for cell activity?（Living cells）
The process of dividing a cell into two cells. The cells before division are called mother cells, and new cells formed after division are called daughter cells. Cell division usually consists of two steps: mitosis and cytokinesis. During the process of nuclear division, the mother cell passes the genetic material to the daughter cell. In unicellular organisms, cell division is the reproduction of an individual, and in multicellular organisms, cell division is the basis for individual growth, development and reproduction.
Cell differentiation refers to the process in which cells after division change in different directions in morphology, structure and function. Cell differentiation is the formation of different tissues. The cells differentiated before and after differentiation do not belong to one type. Those cells with similar structure, same structure and certain functions are called tissues. Different tissues organize organs in a certain order. Various organs coordinate to form a system. Various organs and systems form life bodies. The canceration of cells is an abnormal way of cell differentiation. Each normal cell nucleus contains proto oncogenes. Cancerous cells are normal cells originally, due to external carcinogens (including physical carcinogens, mainly radiation, such as ultraviolet, X-ray, etc.), chemical carcinogens (such as aflatoxin, nitrite, etc.), biological carcinogens (Rous sarcoma virus, hepatitis B virus, etc.) role. The proto oncogene is activated by activation of the proto oncogene, which controls cancer cells.
The cancerous cells have undergone some changes in cell morphology, results and functions.
Cell death is the result of cell senescence and the termination of cell life. These include acute death (cell death) and programmed cell death (apoptosis). The most prominent phenomenon of cell death is the solidification of protoplasm. In fact, cell death is a gradual process. It is more difficult to decide when a cell will die. Unless fixed fluid and other factors contribute to death instantly. So how do we tell if a cell is dead? In vivo staining is usually used for identification. When stained with neutral red, only vacuoles of living cells are stained red. If the dye diffuses and the cytoplasm and nucleus are stained red, the cell is dead.
The study of cell senescence is only part of the study of aging biology (Gerontology, Anthropology). Aging biology is the study of the phenomena, processes and laws of biological aging. Its mission is to reveal the characteristics of biological (human) aging, to explore the causes and mechanisms of aging, to find ways to postpone aging, the fundamental purpose is to prolong the life span of biological (human). Multicellular organism cells can be divided into two groups depending on their life span: stem cells and functional cells. Stem cells maintain their ability to divide throughout their lives until they reach the highest frequency of division.
Such as epidermal germinal layer cells, hematopoietic stem cells and so on.
Apoptosis is an active, genetically determined process that automatically terminates life, often referred to as programmed cell death. Apoptotic cells will be swallowed up by phagocytes. This hypothesis is based on the Hayflick limit: Hayflick proposed it in 1961 on the basis of human embryonic cell subculture experiments. It refers to the normal natural death of cells at a certain stage of development, which is fundamentally different from the pathological death of cells. Apoptosis plays a key role in the normal development of multicellular organisms, the maintenance of homeostasis and the resistance to various external factors. For example: tadpole tail disappearance, bone marrow and intestinal cell apoptosis, vertebrate nervous system development, development process of hand and foot formation.
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